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<&®ll c '(^ 




NOV 6 19/5 






TANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 






Camihuduk, Massachusetts, October 31, 1975 



Vol, i 24. Nil ti 



NLTRITIOXAL VALLK OF COCA 

BY 

James A. Duki: 1 , David Atlik" and 

Timothy Plowman 3 

Leaves of woncTrous nourishment 
Whose Juice Succ'd in, and to the Stomach tak'n 
Long Hunger and long Labour can sustain: 
From which our faint and wearv Bodies find 
More Succor, more they cheer the drooping Mind, 
Than can vour Bacchus and vour Ceres join'd. 

— Abraham Cowley in Mortimer's 

I list art/ (}f Cora 

Abstract, Coca leaves {Erythroocylum (oca Lam.) 
from Chapare, Bolivia, compared to an average of 50 
other Latin American vegetable products, are higher in 
calories (805 per 100 g compared to 270), protein (18.0 
g: 11.4 g), carbohydrate (40.2 g: 37. 1 g), fiber (1+.4 g: 
8.2 g), ash (9.0 g: "2,0 g), calcium (1540 mg: 99 mg), 
phosphorus (911 mg: 270 nig), iron (45.8 mg: 3.0 mg), 
vitamin A (11.000 IT: 135 LL), and riboflavin (1.01 
mg : 0. 18 mg). Coca was lower than the average for the 
50 plant foods in oil content (5.0 g per 100 g compared 
to 9.9 gh moisture (0.5 g: 40.0 g). thiamin (0.35 mg: 
0.38 mgh niacin (L8 mg: 2.2 nig), and ascorbic acid 

'Chief, Plant Taxonomy Laboratory, Plant Genetics and Genu- 
plasm. Institute, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland. 

2 WARF Institute, Inc., Box 2599, Madison, Wisconsin. 

' ; Research Associate in Kconomic Botany, Botanical Museum, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 



[113] 



■ .: I .'i L :Y 

c a: s 

CAL MUSEU: 



(1.4 n\g: 13.0 ma'). Ingestion of 100 y of the Holivian 
coca leaves tested would more than satisfy tlie Recom- 

mended Dietary Allowance tor reference man and 

* 

woman of calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamin A, vita- 
min H 2 and vitamin K. However, the leaves also contain 
alkaloids and may harbor pesticide residues. 

I Hable to establish the nutritional value of coca leaves 
( l**r}flhrthvtflum ( "oca I ,am. )after consulting many sources, 
we obtained a one kilogram sun-dried sample from San 
Francisco, Province of Chapare, Bolivia, in June, 1974, 
Using methods listed in References and Notes, we ob- 
tained the following nutritional analysis ( 1 ) : calories. 305 
per 100 g; moisture, 6.5 g; protein, 18.9 g: carbohy- 
drate. 40.2 g; fat, 5*0 g: vitamin A, 11,000 IF (as 
beta-carotene); vitamin F, 1.4 nig; vitamin H, (thia- 
mine). 0.85 mg: vitamin 1J 2 (riboflavin), 1.9 mg; niacin, 
1,29 mg ; calcium, 1,540 nig: iron, 45.8 nig: vitamin 
K, (.3*5 H (as d-alpha tocopherol); vitamin ]> h . 0,508 
mg: folic acid, 0.130 mg; vitamin H 12 , 1,05 meg: iodine, 
5,0 meg: phosphorus, 911 mg: magnesium, 21 11 mg: 
zinc, 2.70 mg; copper, 1.21 mg; biotin, 0.0868 mg; 
pantothenic acid, 0.084 mg; and sodium, 40.0 mg. The 
analysis of other elements bv emission spectroscopy 
yielded the following amounts: potassium, 2.02 g per 
10() g: aluminum, 89.5 nig: barium, 4.07 mg: stronti- 
um, 9.71 nig; boron, 5.85 mg; zinc, 2,70 mg; manga- 
nese, 0.05 mg; and chromium. 0,859 mg. 

Surprised by the high values, especially in calcium and 
iron, we tabulated nutritional averages for other plant 
products ingested by Latin Americans ('Table 1). Com- 
pared with an average from ten nuts and oilseeds (2) 
[Sesamam uuhcum* Tcniumdia Vainppa. T*runu§ Amyg- 
dalus, Curtflus spp., Arachls hifpo^ava* Cast an ea spp. , 
Ht'rthollclia &veelsa 3 Hcliaittfuis anttuus, A nacanfiitm 
occidcntalc and ///^v/ spp. ), the San Francisco coca lea\ es 

[ 11+ 1 



were higher in protein, carbohydrate, ash, calcium, phos- 
phorus, iron, vitamin A and riboflavin* Coca was lower 
in calories, moisture, fat, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin 
C. Compared with an average often pulses {Jlgtta ////- 
guiculata* Cieer arietinum, Cajanus Cajan, Pisum sativum, 
fleia Paint, Phaseahts vulgaris* Doliehos Lahlah, Lens 
spp,. Glycine Max and Lupinus mutabilis), coca was 
equal in tat; higher in fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, 
iron, vitamin A, and riboflavin; and lower in calories, 
moisture, protein, carbohydrate, thiamin, niacin, and 
vitamin C. Compared with an average of ten cereals 
{Amaranthus caudatus % Oryza sativa f A vena sativa, Chen- 
opodium pailidieaule, ( lienopodivm Qui/toa, Harden m 
vulgare* Svcale eereak\ Coix Lachryma-jobi, r £ea Mays 
and Triticum (wstivum), coca was higher in protein, fat, 
fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, ribo- 
flavin, and vitamin C ; lower in calories, moisture, carbo- 
hydrate, thiamin, and niacin. Compared with an average 
of ten vegetables (Carina edulis, Capsicum spp., Allium 
sativum , ^trraeaeha xanthorrhiza^ Ipomoea Batatas^ Cy- 
clanthera pedata, Cucurbita maxima^ Allium Cepa, Bras- 
siea aleravea* and Tropaeolum tuberosum) and an average 
often fruits (Persea americana 9 A nanas eamasus* Musa 
sapieu / // /// , ( "ocos u u t -if era , Passijlara /// oliissi m a , , i n n on a 
Cherimolia, Prunus persiea, Fragaria spp,, A nnana mu- 
rieata* and Pieus Carica), coca was high on all counts 
except moisture and vitamin C. 

The present coca analyses are com parable to an average 
of three earlier coca analyses from Bolivia {£) and three 
recently reported from Peru (4h Frequent reports that 
coca has no nutritional value should be re-evaluated in 
view of these findings. The comparatively high nutri- 
tional values for eoea are due partly to the fact that the 
leaves are dry (less than KM/f moisture) when purchased, 
whereas most other foods are higher in moisture. 

[ 115] 



In most areas where it is used, coca should be con- 
sidered a masticatorv since it is not wholly consumed bv 
the ehewer. Tvpit ally, the leaves are first moistened in 
the mouth with saliva, then formed into a quid with the 
tongue and pushed into the upper cheek cavity. They 
are then sucked to extract the rich, green juice which is 
subsequently swallowed, Isuallv some form of alkali 

Urn m 

is added to facilitate this extraction. When the chew is 
exhausted, it is usually spat out. Thus, the lull comple- 
ment of nutrients present in the coca leaf is not consumed 
entirely, and the nutritional amounts reported here may 
be somewhat higher than the amounts actually ingested 
by the coca ehewer. To our knowledge, no studies have 
been made on the nutritional value of the swallowed 
extract. 

In the Colombian Amazon, a variation of coca use is 
practiced by several tribes. Coca leaves are pulverized 
to a tine powder along with the ashes of Puurouma or 
Cecropia leaves. The mixture is placed in the mouth on 
the gums and inner (hecks and is eventually swallowed 
(8). In this ease, and in instances where a coca ehewer 
swallows his quid, the full complement of the leaf nutri- 
ents would be invested. 'There is essentially no difference 
here between the use of coca and the direct consumption 
of food, in terms of nutrition. 

The amounts of coca consumed may contribute signifi- 
cantly to the diets of Andean coca chewers (5), If the 
average ehewer invests GO g of Peruvian coca per day 
(5,6), lie more than satisfies his requirements for calcium, 
even without the supplemental ash or lime usually added 
to the coca (p lid ((>). No other food in the INCAP Food 
Composition Tables (2) approaches coca for calcium con- 
tent (1,789 nig). Other food items are high in calcium: 
sesame seeds, 1212 mg per 100 g; spinach flour, 488 mg; 
leaves of Laurus nohULw SO.'J mg : leaves oW/itsticia pevto- 

[ U6 i 



rails, 663 mg; West Indian Almond (Tcrminalia Catap- 
pa\ 497 mg: powdered skim milk, 1,301 mg; whole 
milk, 921 mg: and alligator meat, 1,281 rng: but none 
equals coca. Few food plants can satisfy the calcium and 
iron in the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RI)A ) 
of reference man ingesting 100 g. The Bolivian coca 
leaves reported here do satisfy the III) A, 

Coca leaves may, however, contain 0..25 to 2. *lo L Jc toxic 
alkaloids, including benzoylecgonine, benzoyltropine, 
cinnamyleocaine, cocaine, cuscohygrine, dihydroxytro- 
pane, hygrine, hygroline, methylcocaine, methylecgoni- 
dine, nicotine, tropacocaiiu 1 , and a - and /3 -truxillinc 
(4,7)- These alone could make the nutritious coca leaf 
undesirable as a source of nutrients. The average coca 
chewer could also ingest 44*2 mg of copper in a year if 
the San Francisco leaves are typical : but this amount 
is not excessive. 

Many coca growers in both high (Chapare, Bolivia) 
and low (Yungas, Bolivia) rainfall areas may use insecti- 
cides, The leaves are not intentionally washed, and har- 
vest and curing are timed to avoid rainfall. In considering 
coca for human consumption, the leaves should be ana- 
lyzed for insecticide residues, 

Although coca leaves contain relatively high levels of 
certain nutrients, the presence of alkaloids and the pos- 
sible presence of insecticide residues suggest caution in 
coca chewing. 



[ 117 



o 



REFERENCES AND NOTES 

Methods: Protein \ r /v N 6.25) t Association (if Official Analyti- 
cal Chemists ( A. (). A.C. ), 1 1 1 li Ed., 10. 1970: moisture, vacuum 
oven, A.O. A.C., 122. 1970: ash, A.O.A.C., 123. 1970; fat, 
A.O.A.C, 159, 1 1 * 7 1 * : carbohydrates, bv difference: calories, bv 
calculation : vitamin A, Moore & Ely, Ind. Eng. Chen), Anal. 
Ed., 13: 600- 194 1 : vitamin C, J. BioL Chem,, 147: 399. 1943: 
vitamin IL, A.O.A.C, 77 1. 1970: vitamin B 2 , A.O.A.C, 789. 
1 970 : niacin, A.O. A . C, , 787. I 970 ; elemental, J . A A ). A,C. ,.11: 
1003* IDiitt; vitamin K, Acta Cliemica Scandinaviea 1 I : SI- \:\ t 
1937: vitamin B* {Streptococcus carlshergensis) , Atkins, Schultz, 
Williams & Frey, Intl. & Eng. Chem., Anal. Ed,, 15: 141. 1943; 
folic acid, A.O.A.C, 7StJ. 1970; vitamin B t2 , U.S. P. 17: St>4. 
1963; iodine, ashing, A . O, A.C, ti7 4. 1970: eolorimetry, W.T. 
Binnerts, Anal. Chemica Acta 10: 7s. 1934: biotin {Lactobacillus 
arabinosus/i Wright ft Skeggs, Pph\ Sue. Kxp, BioL & Med,, 56: 
93, 1944; pantothenic acid, Nielands ft Strong, Arch. BioL, 19: 
2. 194H. 

Wu Leung, W, ft \L Flores, IPtil. Tabla de Composition de Ali- 
mentos para L so en America Latina, Institutode Nutricion tic 
Centrn America y Panama (INCAP) :md Interdepartmental Com- 
mittee on Nutrition tor National Defense (ICNND). I . S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Washington, D.C 

3. del Granado, J.T. 1931. Plantas Bolivianas. Arno Hermanns. 
La Paz. 

I, Nfachatlo, E. 1972, El genero Erythroxvlon en el Peru. Rav- 
mondiana 5 : 5- 101. 

3. Hanna,J,\L 1974. Coca Leaf I' se in Southern Peru: Some Bio- 
social Aspects. Am. Anthropologist 7*> (2): 281-296. 

»>. Baker, P. T. & K.IL Mazess. 1963. Calcium: Unusual Sources in 
the Highland Peruvian Diet, Science 1 V2 : 1466-7. 

7. Willaman, J.J. & R.CL Schubert. 1961, Alkaloid-bearing plants 
and their Contained Alkaloids. L.S. Department of Agriculture. 
Washington, D.C 

H. Schultes, ILK. 1937. A new method of coca preparation in the 
Colombian Amazon, Hot, Mus. Leatl. Harvard Cniv, 17 (9): 241 — 
246, 



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The following text is generated from uncorrected OCR. 



[Begin Page: Page 113] 



- ANICAL MUSEUM LEAFLETS 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

CAM IIHDiE, MASSA (IliSFTTS, ()(:IO i J 31,1 975 Vol. 24, No. ( 



N TI'ITIONALVALUI OF COCA 

BY 
.liAM:ES A. 1)UKi-,' DAVID AUil'K" ANI) 
TIM(OTHYPI)IW)MAN; 

Leaves of wond'rous nourishment 
Whose Juice Succ'd in, and to the Stomach tak'n 
Long Hunger and long Labour can sustain: 
From which our faint and weary Bodies find 
More Succor, more they cheer the drooping Mind, 
Than can your Bacchus and your Ceres join'd. 
-AHAIIIAM (COWI.IY in Mortimer's 
lis.tory/ql' Cora 

,blstract. Coca leaves (Erythroxi.v/lui (Cc}(« ILamn.) 
from Chapare. Bolivia, compared to an average of 50 
other Latin American vegetable products, are higher in 
calories (305 per 100 g compared to 279), protein (18. 9 
g: 1 1 .4 g). carbohydrate (46.2 g: 37.1 g), fiber (14.4 g: 
3.2 g). ash (9.0 g: 2.0 g), calcium (1540 mg: 99 mg). 
phosphorus (91 1 nng: 270 mg), iron (45.8 mg: 3.6 mg). 
vitamin A (11.000 II': 135 11'), and riboflavin (1.91 
img: 0.18 mg). Coca was lower than the average for the 
50 plant foods in oil content (5.0 g per 100 g comlpared 
to 9.9 g), moisture (6.5 g: 40.0 g), thianiin (0.35 mrg: 
0.38 rmg), niacin (1 .3 mug : 2. 2 mg), and ascorbic acid 

Chief, Plant Taxonony Laboratory, Plant Genetics and Germ- 
plasm, Institute, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Maryland. 

'WA RF Institute, Inc., Box ,2599, Madison, Wisconsin. 

" Research Associate in Economic Botany, Botanical Museum, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
[113] 



2i 



[Begin Page: Page 114] 



(1. - mg : 133.0 rug). Ingestion o(f 100 g of the liolivian 
coca leaves tested wouild miore tlhan satis'fy thie lecom- 
rlienrc(le I )ietarV AMIowance lor rleterernce mian andl 
wVO)ialn of calcilum, ironl , )llosphor~lus, vitalin \,. vita- 
min 12 anidl( italin il . Mo\wVcvr, the leave's also, c(tain 
alkaloids and may hiarbor pesticide residues. 

I liable to estabtlish the nutritional value of coca leaves 
( Ir !//iiraili/nnii ('0(/l Lamu. )aftereonsurlting many soulrces. 
wVe obtained a one kilogram sun-dried sample from San 
Francisco, Provincee of (liapare. Blolivia, in J"ine, 1974. 
I'sing methliodsl listed in leferences and Notes, we oh- 
tained tie fiollowing nutritional analysis (1): calories. .305 
per 100 g: moist ure, L gl_ : 'protein, 18.! g: carlbohly- 
drate. K2 g: fat. 3.0 g: vitanmin A.. 1 1 .000 1 1 ' (as 
beta-car)tene): v itamin (C 1 .4 rg; vitamin ir , (tlihia- 
mine). 0.3.) mg: v itatmin 1 1 , (riboflavin). 1 .9 mg: niacin, 
1 . 29 I g: calciumi. 1 ..340 m : iron. 1 .43.8 g: vitamin 
1K. 13.3 I I' (as d(-alpha tocopherol): vitamini II . 0.308 
rug: folic acid. 0. 130 m g: vitamin 12. 1 .0. meg: iodine. 
5.)0 nrc: phlosphorus, 1 1 1 li : Inagnesium, 213 «y: 
zinc,. ".70 ml : co()i)er. 1 .21 "ug: biotin, 0.08( my: 
/)antotlenic acid. 0.81 . m;i: and soditum. 1 0. (i • g. The 
analysis of other elements by emission s1 pectroscopy( 
yielded the following amounts: p)otassit«um. .02 g per 
100 g: alumtninuiim, 39.5.3 lugy; barinu. 4.(7 lug: stronti- 
uim, ).71 111: boron. 5.3.5 Imy3 : zinc, 2.70 lug: manl«a- 
nese. (i.3 yru anid (chromiiiuill. 0.39. nig. 

Surprised by tlie high v aluies, especially in calciumir and 
iron, we tabulated rnutritiornal averages for other plant 
products ingested by I atin Americans (Table 1). Com- 
pared with an average from ten nuts and oilseeds (2) 
(Ss'xalU in ilndi'u m. To'rni//n/iia C( ala)tpp, I'Punis . 1 11 n/".'- 
/(dlu.s. ('Cr/7//u. st)1)., .1 rat'/di. //t/!yoga'a. ('a./anica s)()., 
l«'ril//,o/lia (7(C(7ra, HI Vlian/il s (annu us, .I ncai'(rdiu 
oi'('en(/('l/( and Una spp. ). t lie San Francisco coca leav es 

f Hil 



[Begin Page: Page 115] 



were higher in protein, carbohydrate, ash, calcium, phos- 
phorus, iron, vitamin A and riboflavin. Coca was lower 
in calories, moisture,, tat, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin 
C. Compared with an average of ten pulses ( 7J'na( un1 - 
guiculadta, Ciccr arictin ui,. Cajan us ('ajan, Pisu .i satircum, 
1 icia Fab a, Phiascohl(s ,ru/laris. l)olichos Lahl/b/b, Lens 
spp., CGIycin c Max and Lupin 1 , mutab/ilis), coca was 
equal in tit; higher in fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, 
iron, vitamin A. and riboflainn: and lower in calories, 
moisture, protein, carbohydrate, thiamin, niacin, and 
vitamin C. Compared with an average of ten cereals 
(.1 ni(1 tr'inthuls caudatus, Ory,:a ,satia, a1 ' e Sa ./'atia, Chc(n- 
opo(/dium pa/(lidica( ', (Vh'nopodium Quinoa, Horch'umi 
I'/garc, Sccadc cerealc. ('oi Lachy/mir ai-jobi. Zea Jlalys 
and 'iriticum ac(stin muil), coca was higher in protein, fat, 
fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A. ribo- 
flavin, and vitamin C: lower in calories, moisture, carbo- 
hydrate, thiamin, and niacin. Compared with an average 
of ten vegetables ((C 'anina dulis, -('apsicumn spp.. .I /inin 
satin, ,u, 1 rr'(i'achaia r'antholrrii:-a, lpoi>eca rata/.S, ('!y- 
c/at//hc'ra pdllata. ("Curbita mniarimaa. lAi/iumn ('cpa. Bra.s- 
NSa('(l o/ltracca. al(nd Troui'eo/uh tul/berosu ini) and an average 
oft ten fruits (Persca amen'icanaa. i, nas coimosus, J SillSa 
siap)icn tutn. (Coco, n 1/iucl ra, Pa.si/solora( niollis.iia, .1 in noina 
(7'hcriniolia, Pri.nuis per'Nica, Ira, 'aria spp.. .1 1 niona ( ml - 
r'icata, and Fir/.s ('Carica'). coca was high on all counts 
except moisture and vitamin C. 

The present coca analyses are comparable to an average 
of three earlier coca analyses from Bolivia (3) and three 
recently reported trom Peru (4). Frequent reports that 
coca has no nutritional value should be re-evaluated in 
view of these findings. The comparatively highi nutri- 
tional values for coca are due partly to the fact that the 
leaves are dry (less than IO()/ moisture) when purchased, 
whereas most other foods are higher in moisture. 
[11. 



[Begin Page: Page 116] 



I Mn ost areas where it is used, coca should be con- 
sidered a mnasticatory since it is not wholly cons«tumed by 
thlic cewer. 'ITypicallv. tlie leavces are first iimoist eed in 
the imouth with saliva, then formied into a quid with tihe 
tongue and pushed into thie upper cheek cavity. They 
arc then sucked to extract tlie rich, green juice which is 
subsequently swallowed. I'sually sonic ftori of alkali 
is added to facilitate this extraction. When the chew is 
exhausted, it is iusually spat out. Thus, tlie full conmple- 
ment of nutrients present in the coca leaf is not consumlled 
entirely, and the nutritional amniounts reported here may 
be somiewhat higher thanr thie amrounts actually ingested 
by tlihe coca chewer. To our knowledge, no studies have 
/been nrade (on tile nuttritiornal value of tthe swallowed 
extract. 

In thie Colormbian Amazon, a variation of coca use is 
practiced by several tribes. Coca leaves are pulverized 
to a iine powder along with thie ashes of IPourouina or 
(C'cro)pi( leaves. The mixture is placed in the mrouth on 
the gums and inner cheeks and is eventually swallowed 
(8). In this case, and in instances where a coca chewer 
swallows his quid, tlie full cormlelenient of the leaf nutri- 
ents would be ingested. There is essentially no diflference 
here betweenr thte use of coca and t he direct consumptlion 
of food, in terms of nutrition. 

IThe amounts of oca c onsumed may contribute signifi- 
cantly to ttie diets of Arindean coca cihewers (5). If the 
average clewer ingests ()0 g of Peruvrian coca per day 
(5,6). lie rnmore than satisfies hlis requirements for calciiii,. 
even without tire su pplemii ent al asih or limre rusually added 
to the coca tqid ((i). No other food in tie I NCAP' Food 
Composition Tables (') approac hes coca for calcium con- 
tent (1 .78 nrug). Other food items are high in calcium: 
sesame seeds, 1 21 2 rug per 1 00 g: spin:ach flour. 488 ug: 
leaves (of Laur/.'s nrollis, 80; rig : leaves of Ju,/icia pc/co- 

[ 1 ;11 



[Begin Page: Page 117] 



ralis, (;(;3 mg; West Indian Almond ( 1Ter/inalia Catap- 



pa), 497 nig powdered skim milk, 1 ,301 mg; whole 
milk, 921 Img: and alligator meat, 1 ,231 rmg: but none 
equals coca. Few food plants can satisfy the calcium and 
iron in the Recommended Dietary Allowance (1 l)A) 
of reference man ingesting 100 g. The Bolivian coca 
leaves reported here do satisfy the DI)A. 
Coca leaves may, however, contain 0. 25 to 2.25. /CI toxic 
alkaloids, including benzoylecgonine, benzoyltropine, 
cinnamyleocaine, cocaine, cuscohygrine, dihydroxytro- 
pane, hygrine, hygroline, methylcocaine, nmethylecgoni- 
dine, nicotine, tropacocaine, and a - and /3 -truxilline 
(4,7). These alone could make the nutritious coca leaf 
undesirable as a source of nutrients. The average coca 
chewer could also ingest 442 mg of copper in a year if 
the San Francisco leaves are typical: but this amount 
is not excessive. 

Many coca growers in both high (Chlapare, Bolivia) 
and low (Yungas, Bolivia) rainfall areas may use insecti- 
cides. The leaves are not intentionally washed, and har- 
vest and curing are timed to avoid rainfall. In considering 
coca for human consumption, the leaves should be ana- 
lyzed for insecticide residues. 
Although coca leaves contain relatively high levels of 
certain nutrients, the presence of alkaloids and the pos- 
sible presence of insecticide residues suggest caution in 
coca chewing. 



[117 



[Begin Page: Page 118] 



ItFERIINCESAN) NOTES 

1 . Methods: Protein 'i/(" N A ti.) .),. Association of Official Analyti- 
cal Chemists (A.O. A.C. ), I ith Ed., t16. 1970(: moisture, vacuum 
oven, A.O. A.O, 122. 1970 ; ash, A.O.A.O, 123. 1970: fat, 
A. . A.O, 129. 197): carbohyvdrates, by difference: calories, by 
calculation: vitamin A, Moore & Ely, Ind, Eng. Chem. Anal, 
id., I ":6(00. 191- : vitamin C, ,i. Biol, ('hem., 1 1-47 : 899. 191- : 
vitamin 1B,. A.. O, 771. 1970: vitamin I,, A.O.A.O, S,9. 
1970: niacin, A.O.A.O, 7S7. 197): elemental. ,.A..O.A.O, .1 : 
100.:. 196tS: vitamin 1:,, Acta Cheinica Scandinavica 11:;-!:. 



19.K : vitamin 13, ( Sreplacoccus. cnr/lshrgei.vi s), Atkins, Schultz, 
Williams &s Frey, Inl. & Irng. Chern., Anal. I.d., 1 : 41. 1918: 
folic acid, A.O.A.C , 7S . 1 970: vitarmin B , ".S. I. 1 7: S 1 .. 
19ti,: iodine, ashing, A.O.A.C, i 174. 1970: colorimetry, W .T. 
Binnerts, Anal. C(hemica Acta 1 0: 7 S. 1 .) ! : biotin ( l.actofbah illus 
arlbhi, o.isus), Wrigit & Skeggs. I'roc. Soc. 1xp. Biol. & Bled., (ti: 
9.3. 191-1: pantothenic acid, Nielands & Strong, Arch. Biol., 1 9: 
2. 19 8. 

',. Wu leung, W\. & M. Flores. 1 961 . 'abla de (omposicion de Ali- 
mentos para I so en Amerrica .Latina. Instituto de Nutriciin de 
Centro America vy Panan;i (IN('AP) and Interdepartmental Com- 
mittee on Nutrition for National l)efense (('N N I). .S. ( iovern- 
mient Printing ()tice. \ashington, l).C. 

8. del (iranado, J.T'. 19381. Plantas Holivianas. Arno llerrnanos. 
La Paz. 

I. Machado, E. 1972. ,l genero l)'rythroxylon en el i'eri. Ray- 
mond iana 5 : ,- 101 . 

. lanna, J.M. 197 I.. Coca Leaf I se in Southern Peru : Some Bio- 
social Aspects. Am. Anthropologist 7; ('): ' 1- 9 I- ti. 

ti. Baker, P.T. & It. B. Maezss. 19ti;. Calcium : Inusual Sources in 
the hlighland Peruvian 1)iet. Science 1 4 : 14titi-7 

t. Willaman, J.,1 . & B.G( . Schubert. I 9i 1 . Alkaloid-bearing plants 
and their Contained Alkaloids. .S. I)epartment of Agriculture. 
Washington, D).C. 

S. Scihultes, R. 1 . 1 9.7. A new nrethod of coca preparation in the 
Colombian Amazon. Bot. Mus. Leaf, I larvard lUniv. 17 (91 : 21- 
'2 hi. 



118 



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